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地震地貌学研究的现状及展望

作    者:林闻1,程岳宏2
单    位:1 雪佛龙亚太勘探生产部;2 中国海洋石油研究总院
基金项目:
摘    要:
地震地貌学是通过三维地震资料平面及空间特征,结合地震地层学理论,来解读和还原古地貌、古沉积和其他地质信息的一门综合性学科,其核心技术是通过快速浏览三维地震资料主测线、联络测线及时间切片等来识别“特殊地质体”。该学科的建立,在真正意义上实现了地震解释从二维到三维的跨越,已在指导勘探和储层预测上发挥了巨大作用。从层位解释、平行解释层位切片或地层切片、振幅属性提取和分析、地震信号体素追踪、特殊属性数据体分析以及多数据体属性叠加显示等六大方面介绍了地震地貌学分析技术的应用实例。地震地貌学还处在起步阶段,未来的发展趋势将会主要集中于:(1)海相和陆相背景下碎屑岩和碳酸盐岩沉积演化研究;(2)基于地震资料的生储盖层及源岩岩性的精确预测,如深水沉积环境下河道砂体精细追踪及河道内部沉积结构划分等;(3)层序地层学理论与模式的改进与发展;(4)储层物性定量化研究、储层非均质性研究以及更加先进的分析技术手段等。
关键词:地震地貌学;三维地震;特殊地质体;地层识别;技术应用;发展趋势

An Overview and the Future Development of Seismic Geomorphology

Author's Name: Lin Wen, Cheng Yuehong
Institution: Chevron Asia Pacific E & P
Abstract:
Seismic geomorphology is the extraction of geomorphic insights using predominant 3-D seismic data and plan view images to study paleo-geomorphology, paleo-deposition and other geological information. The critical techniques is de tecting the “funny looking thing” by quickly slicing through inline, crossline and time slice on seismic data. Application examples of seismic geomorphology analytical techniques are covered by introducing horizon interpretation, stratal slicing, amplitude extraction, voxel body detection, volume-based attribute analysis, and multi-volume attribute display, etc. This discipline is only in its early stages of development and will become the major one, which will be widely applied in (1) clastic and carbonate depositional evolution in both marine and continental depositional environments; (2) seismic-based petroleum system prediction, such as deep-water channel body detection and internal texture configuration; (3) sequence stratigraphy theory and model development and modification; and (4) reservoir property quantification, heterogeneity study and beyond.
Keywords: Seismic geomorphology; 3-D seismic; Formation identification; Technical application; Development trend
投稿时间:2012-04-28  
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