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碳酸盐岩溶蚀模拟实验技术进展及应用

作    者:佘敏1,2,蒋义敏1,2,胡安平1,2,吕玉珍1,2,陈薇1,2,王永生1,2,王莹1,2
单    位:1中国石油杭州地质研究院;2中国石油集团碳酸盐岩储层重点实验室
基金项目:本文受国家自然科学基金“实验研究碳酸盐岩埋藏溶蚀机制及其有利条件”等资助
摘    要:
碳酸盐岩溶蚀作用是指流动的侵蚀性流体与碳酸盐岩之间相互作用的过程及由此产生的结果,从地表到深 埋藏地层中均可发生。碳酸盐岩溶蚀模拟实验是指通过模拟地层环境来再现碳酸盐岩溶蚀作用的过程和结果,是研 究碳酸盐岩储层规模溶蚀有利条件和分布规律的重要方法。中国石油集团碳酸盐岩储层重点实验室自主研发高温 高压溶解动力学模拟装置,最终建成由岩石内部溶蚀、岩石表面溶蚀和高温高压原位可视化检测组成的碳酸盐岩溶 蚀模拟实验技术。利用高温高压溶解动力学模拟实验装置,开展了碳酸盐岩埋藏溶蚀温度窗口和孔隙演化样式的实 验研究,取得2个方面的认识:①高盐度流体背景模拟实验表明,随着温度增加,碳酸盐岩的溶蚀量具有缓慢下降— 缓慢上升—快速下降的特征,由于地层水两种相反离子效应的作用,在80~110℃范围内存在一个有利于碳酸盐岩溶 蚀的温度窗口;②通过粒间孔隙型、晶间孔隙型、溶蚀孔洞型、鲕模孔隙型和格架孔隙型5种碳酸盐岩溶蚀模拟的对 比实验,认识到连通孔隙是埋藏溶蚀发生的先决条件和有利区域,碳酸盐岩内部组构差异会进一步加剧储集空间在 孔、洞和缝组合上的复杂性。
关键词:碳酸盐岩;溶蚀模拟;内部溶蚀;温度窗口;溶孔演化;溶蚀效应

The progress and application of dissolution simulation of carbonate rock

Author's Name: SHE Min, JIANG Yimin, HU Anping, LÜ Yuzhen, CHEN Wei, WANG Yongsheng, WANG Ying
Institution: PetroChina Hangzhou Research Institute of Geology
Abstract:
Carbonate rock dissolution refers to the process and results of interaction between flowing erosive fluid and carbonate rocks. Carbonate rock dissolution may take place at surface, burial and deep burial conditions. Dissolution simulation of carbonate rock is to reproduce the process and results of carbonate rock dissolution under simulating formation environment, which is an important method to study the favorable conditions and distribution rules of scale dissolution of carbonate reservoir. Since 1930s, many carbonate dissolution experiments have been conducted by researchers in China and abroad. The technology of dissolution simulation of carbonate rock mainly goes through three stages: surface dissolution of rock under relative low temperature and low pressure, surface dissolution of rock under high temperature and high pressure, and internal dissolution of rock under high temperature and high pressure. The CNPC key laboratory of carbonate reservoir has designed the high temperature & high pressure dissolution dynamics simulation apparatus, and developed the carbonate dissolution simulation technology which consists of functions of rock internal dissolution, rock surface dissolution, visual and analysis in situ under high temperature and high pressure. Experiments of temperature window and pore evolution pattern of carbonate rock burial dissolution were done by using the high temperature & high pressure dissolution dynamic simulation apparatus. The results of experiments with highsalinities fluid show that the dissolution quantity of carbonate rock has the characteristics of slow declining- slow risingfast declining. Because of the action of two opposite ionic effects in high-salinities fluid, 80~110 ℃ is the favorable temperature window for carbonate rock burial dissolution. The comparative dissolution simulations of five types carbonate rocks of interparticle pore, intercrystalline pore, dissolved pore - dissolved vug, oolite moldic pore and growth-framework pore, indicate that the connecting pore is the prerequisite and favorable place for the occurrence of buried dissolution, and the difference of internal fabric of carbonate rocks will further increase the complexity of reservoir space in the combination of pores, vugs, and fractures.
Keywords: carbonate rock; dissolution simulation; internal dissolution; temperature window; dissolved pore evolution; dissolution effect
投稿时间:2019-09-18  
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